A deeper-dive into some of the more structural aspects of topical issues in the economic debate.

Magnifier over a map of France

Leveraging the French paradoxes

Two years into his Presidency, Emmanuel Macron has delivered a flurry of reforms that aim to leverage the strength in the paradoxes of the French economy: high productivity yet improvable education, enviable demographics yet low labour utilisation, relatively low poverty rates yet surprisingly low social mobility…


Building site in Nigeria

Africa: a new growth model is needed

For Africa to reach its full growth potential, a higher investment rate and more diversified FDI across sectors are key in shaping a more balanced and resilient growth model, less focused on just a few pockets of growth (such as extractive industries and trade hubs). This new pattern should prioritize agriculture, further diversification of export revenues and more inclusive finance to gradually attract a larger share of the rural activity into the formal sector.


African business district

Africa is more integrated in global financial flows

The past two decades have been marked by renewed optimism for Africa with several
countries in the region enjoying high growth rates. Ranking high amongst the many positive
factors (rapid urbanization, a growing middle class, etc.), is Africa’s increasing trade and financial integration with the rest of the world. All types of funding (foreign investment, bank financing, etc.) have risen rapidly since the mid-2000’s. However, the economic performance in terms of productivity catch-up with more developed markets has yet to materialise, and the continent still falls well short of its full growth potential.


Italian Parliament Building

Italy’s Fiscal Multiplier Trap

The impact of discretionary fiscal policy on economic growth is an ongoing topic of debate, and not least these days between Brussels and Rome. Weighing up the different mechanisms at work, we find that the multiplier on fiscal expansion in Italy today is below the levels needed to bring down the debt-to-GDP ratio. Conversely, should the Italian government switch the fiscal lever to austerity, we are concerned that this too could prove self-defeating. In a nutshell, Italy seems caught in a “fiscal multiplier trap”. Breaking out of this requires a much stronger focus on growth boosting structural reforms.


Beijing Financial District

China’s Mission Impossible

Chinese economic policy pursues four, at times conflicting, goals: growth, financial stability,exchange stability and deleveraging. Albeit that this is not new, the context is now much more restrictive and although measures have been announced favouring growth and reforms, there is mounting concern that policymakers will have to make some hard choices.
We believe that the direction of economic policy will lean towards growth and financial stability while pausing the other two, although not fully abandoning these goals. This implies,
at least over the next two years, a gradual weakening of the RMB and a pause in the deleveraging process. We expect Chinese growth to gradually slow to around 5% in 2022.

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The long-term equilibrium rate of interest

Economic theory suggests the existence of an equilibrium rate of interest which balances savings and investment at full employment. Research shows that this rate fell in the aftermath of the Great recession of 2008 to now stand at a very low level. To bring the economy back to its potential, the central banks have endeavoured to ensure that actual rates do align with this theoretical rate.

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Negative rates: how did we get here?

Today, several governments can take out loans on financial markets at negative interest rates – which means that investors are paying to lend them money. If this situation, unprecedented in history, may at first seem absurd, it is in fact absolutely rational at a time when investors are becoming increasingly pessimistic about the economy in a world where underlying economic fundamentals remain essentially weak.

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Robotic and human hands

The winners and losers of the robot revolution

The age of automation promises growth in production but also heralds a widening of inequalities, with low and medium-skilled workers on one side and highly-skilled, increasingly well-paid workers on the other. Furthermore, the rise in capital stock that is inherent to automation is set to widen the inequality gap further, given that capital ownership is more unevenly distributed than labour income.



What is shadow banking?

Shadow banking refers to all credit intermediation activities that take place outside the regulated banking system. Although shadow finance plays a valuable role, it is not without risk. Certain activities – estimated by the Financial Stability Board at $51,600 billion in 2017 – are liable to present systemic risks to financial stability.


Road sign

Monetary policies: what is the endgame?

Upon the conclusion of its monetary committee meeting on 29 and 30 January, the US Federal Reserve (Fed) marked a pause in the cycle of raising its key rates that it had initiated in December 2015. The question of the irreversibility of ultra-expansionary monetary policies is particularly acute in these times of a global economic slowdown.


hand closing the valve

The quantitative easing retreat

The world has entered a new era, with the central bank liquidity tap – on full since the 2008 crisis – now being gradually turned off. While the Fed continues with quantitative tightening (QT), that is, the shrinking of its balance sheet, the ECB ended its quantitative easing (QE) programme on 31 December 2018. Monetary tightening could have disruptive effects.

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Dollar vs euro illustration

Can the euro challenge “King Dollar”?

In his State of the Union speech in Strasbourg on 12 September, European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker announced that proposals would be presented before the end of year aimed at “strengthening the international role” of the euro against the dollar. “It is absurd, he lamented, that European companies buy European planes in dollars and not in euros“. But does the euro have the means to challenge the hegemony of the dollar?

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Quarterly economic forecasts for the main developing and emerging countries.


Late cycle tensions

Despite a welcome bounce back on the 1Q19 GDP figures in many of the advanced economies, most signals still point to a slowdown of the global economy ahead, amidst heightened tariff tensions between the United States and China, on-going Brexit uncertainty and various country-specific headwinds.

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Road blocks

Past the peak on growth and rates

The global expansion has lost steam after reaching a peak in 2017. International trade and manufacturing output have slowed amidst weaker demand from China. Political uncertainty (Brexit, US-China trade talks, pace of economic reform in the euro area) mark an additional headwind. The forward guidance from the Fed and the ECB has shifted to a more dovish tone and stock market have rebounded so far in 2019. Yet, fixed-income markets price now weak growth and low inflation for long. Rising unit labour costs in Europe and tighter labour markets in the US could still lead to inflationary surprises and a near-term correction on bond yields could prove a source of financial volatility.

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Economic analysis.


The dynamics of inequality: Is there a general pattern?

The world today is both more and less unequal than it was back in the 1970s. Inequality between countries has narrowed over the course of the last few decades, mainly due to the extraordinary growth of China, but inequality within countries, especially rich countries, which had declined between the 1930s and the 1970s, has risen substantially. A high level of inequality is problematic, as it can undercut social cohesion, lead to more instability, and, as research at the IMF and elsewhere has recently shown, undermine the sustainability of growth itself. Looking closely at inequality can provide us with an important key to understanding major political and economic events of the recent past.

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Asia: growth jeopardised by the trade war

Trade tensions between China and the United States represent a major risk for the export-oriented Asian region. Economies can be affected via the global value chain, Chinese growth and competitive devaluation (although the latter is unlikely). Only India is less vulnerable to this risk.

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Monetary Policy

Monetary Policy: back to normal?

The 2008 financial crisis witnessed unprecedented policy responses from the world’s major central banks. Main central banks cut their policy rate to near 0%, exhausting the conventional monetary options. Then, to further ease financial conditions, they started to design a variety of unorthodox monetary policy tools commonly labelled as “unconventional monetary policies”. These have included “lower-for-longer” forward guidance on the short-term rate, large-scale asset purchases, large-scale liquidity provis.

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More EcoNote studies

11/2017 - Trade globalisation: going into reverse?

04/2017 - Italy: companies' difficulties are hampering investment and growth potential

03/2017 - “Super-aged” nations and inflation: case studies

12/2016 - Housing in Europe: are there any overheated markets?

11/2016 - Population aging: Risk of deflation or inflation?

11/2016 - Emerging markets’ external debt: it’s the same old song?

09/2016 - US public debt: towards more domestic and private financing

07/2016 - China: assessing the global impact of a Chinese slowdown

06/2016 - France: A private sector in better financial health, despite higher debt

03/2016 - A world without inflation

09/2015 - Low interest rates: the "new normal"?

03/2015 - Euro zone: in the grip of ‘secular stagnation’?

02/2015 - Emerging oil producing countries: which are the most vulnerable to the decline in oil price?

01/2015 - Germany: Not a “bazaar” but a factory!

09/2014 - Euro zone: is the crisis over?

05/2014 - Eurozone: corporate financing via market, an uneven development

01/2014 : Ireland: End of the bailout program - Now what?

12/2013 - The euro zone: Falling into a liquidity trap?

11/2013 - Rising public debt in Japan: how far is too far?

09/2013 - Netherlands: at the periphery of core countries

06/2013 - US: Becoming a LNG exporter

06/2013 - France: Why has the current account balance deteriorated for more than 10 years?

05/2013 - US energy independence

04/2013 - Developed countries: who holds public debt?

04/2013 - China: the growth debate

04/2013 - China: housing property prices: failing to see the forest for the trees

02/2013 - Financing governments debt: a vehicle for the (dis)integration of the eurozone?

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